Talking about Indonesian visual art, you can bet that it will be as diverse as the cultures in Indonesia. Every culture produces its own kind of visual art that either serves as an outlet for expression, aesthetic decoration or ceremonial and religious necessities. As time goes by, some Indonesian visual arts, be it painting or sculpture, may turn to a modern pathway, but most still rely on traditional aspects for inspiration.
The Art of Painting
The oldest form of painting found in Indonesia is the prehistorical cave painting, such as the notable ones in Maros Regency. The floral design has been considered as a part of the Indonesian culture and arts, a nod to how rich Indonesia is with natural resources. The art of painting flourished in Bali, a place filled with rich natural landscapes.
Balinese painting tradition starts with its classic Kamasan art, a visual narrative that uses wayang or shadow puppets. The painting tradition itself is known through its vigorous yet polished technique that enchants a lot of eyes with a touch tropical design. Nowadays, Bali has turned into a painter’s haven thanks to the depth of its culture and array of natural wonders.
Bali aside, the development of modern painting in Indonesia was pioneered by Raden Saleh. The development gave birth to several styles of painting art that are highly influenced by the European style. One of them is naturalist style called Mooi Indies, or beautiful Indies. From here, the art of painting continues to grow and was occasionally used to voice a painter’s political opinion.
The Art of Sculpting
Sculpting has been one of the most prominent visual arts in Indonesia going all the way back to as far as megalithic era. This discipline of art is an essential part of the Indonesian culture when it comes to religious and ceremonial purposes. Tribal art is one sculpting form that flourished within Indonesian indigenous cultures such as Nias, Batak, Asmat, and other cultures. Masks, shields, statues are some examples that these civilizations produced using wood and stone as the primary materials.
From the 8th century through the 15th, when Hinduism and Buddhism greatly influenced the Indonesian culture, the country developed a refined stone sculpting style involves elaborate and complex elements. Detailed stone statues of Hindu deities and intricate temple reliefs are testaments to how skilled and talented the artists of this era were.
Wood carvings also thrive in some part of Indonesia like Jepara and Bali, producing beautiful and refined carved ornament for doors, headrest, and décor. Java is also home to authentic wayang and masks for performing purposes. As time goes by, sculpting slowly became almost purely aesthetic rather than for religious and ceremonial purposes, and hence making their way to modern homes and offices.
The Art of Textile
Textiles became one of the crucial aspects of Indonesian cultures. Locals pride in the long and rigorous production process that requires precision, artistic know-how and thoroughness. The finished textile represents the society it came from and would usually bear a specific pattern that symbolizes something dear to the community. We can look at Batik as an example of the Javanese signature textile. A Batik cloth undergoes a complex and time-consuming process that involves hand-drawing intricate patterns.
Another example is woven fabric from Sumatra called ikat. It usually contains geometric figures made using a highly advanced technique that results in vibrant, valuable textiles.
The Art of Cinema
The Dutch East Indies pioneered cinema in Indonesia’s colonial era. The first cinematic art was a silent movie called Loetoeng Kasaroeng, taking Sundanese legend as the inspiration. It flourished and peaked during the 1960s. Even as far as having Indonesia’s version of Hollywood called Tangkiwood, a district where talented actors and actresses used to reside. The golden cinema years went on until its significant decline in the 1990s. Thankfully, the cinematic art began to revive with the turn of the millennium and recovered by the 2010.
Though still a far shot from Hollywood, the Indonesian cinematic industry has begun to create waves. The local creative industry continues to produce memorable movies that have gained popularity around the world, starting with "The Raid", a movie series that enjoyed the spotlight, along with other independent creations like Joko Anwar's "Gundala" that have appeared in international film festivals.